A man may have an elevated PSA for a number of reasons. An elevated PSA is a result of the prostate cells or gland being disrupted in some way. The treatment for having an elevated PSA will depend on what is causing the PSA to rise. Let’s take a look as the most common causes of an elevated PSA:
Prostatitis. Prostatitis also means a prostate infection, which causes inflammation of the prostate gland. Prostatitis is the most common prostate condition in men younger than 50. It can usually be treated with antibiotics.
Prostate cancer. An elevated PSA could indicate prostate cancer. If you have an elevated PSA, your doctor will also do a digital rectal exam to see if there are any suspicious lumps present on the prostate gland. If they suspect prostate cancer, a prostate biopsy will be recommended. It’s also important to monitor any changes in the PSA; if the PSA continues to rise, this may mean prostate cancer. If you continue to have an elevated PSA, but your biopsy is negative, your doctor will most likely recommend follow-up PSA tests and a follow-up biopsy within six months. If prostate cancer is present, the most common and effective form of treatment robotic prostate surgery.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) BPH also means an enlarged prostate gland. This does not mean prostate cancer. BPH is the most common prostate condition men over 50 suffer from. As men age, their prostate naturally gets bigger. This happens regardless of any medical condition affecting the prostate gland. It can often cause urination problems such as frequent urination or difficulty urinating. Treatment for BPH includes having a surgical procedure called a Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
Urinary tract infection. A urinary tract infection can cause irritation and inflammation in the prostate gland, which can cause the PSA to go up. If you have a UTI, a doctor will prescribe antibiotics to treat it. The PSA should go back to normal after the infection has gone away so make sure to wait until then to have a PSA test. Men with an enlarged prostate have a higher risk for urinary tract infections.
Having certain medical procedures or exams. The prostate can sometimes be affected after certain procedures, such as a prostate biopsy or cystoscopy. It can also be affected after having a digital rectal exam. The PSA can elevate after having any of these done because they disturb the prostate gland. It can even rise after having a catheter in place. The PSA should go back to normal within a few days once the prostate has healed.
After sex. After sex, or ejaculation, the PSA can go up. The PSA usually only goes up very slightly, so it may not even show a difference. The PSA should go back to normal within a few days.